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EL01.  ENFIELD 1853 MUSKET LOCK, TOWER 1861: This is a musket lock for an 1853 Enfield musket. It fully functional in half & full cock, and is all original. It is marked with the Crown and TOWER 1861 on the face plate, and maker marked MOXHAM on the inside plate. $295.00

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EL02.  ENFIELD 1853 MUSKET LOCK, TOWER 1862: This is a musket lock for an 1853 Enfield musket. It fully functional in half & full cock, and is all original. It is marked with the Crown and TOWER 1862 on the face plate, but hard to make out the makers name on the inside plate. $325.00

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F114.  CONFEDERATE ARSENAL CONVERSION MUSKETThis musket is a Confederate arsenal or field conversion musket, which is in great untouched attic condition.  It originally was a M1816 flintlock and you can see the Springfield mark and an eagle head on the lock plate.  The drum bolster is crudely configured, and the hammer almost has a blacksmith made look to it.  All metal parts have the same aged patina, and the stock matched as well.  Under the middle band you can see a period arsenal repair to the stock. Even the original ram rod has the same matching patina.  Confederate conversion muskets are a good buy since they are more affordable, and underscore the make-do disposition of the Confederate war machine.  I have discounted this for the collector looking for a Confederate carried musket, but at a great entry level point for the new or young collector. $795.00

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F120.  PLYMOUTH RIFLE: This is a Plymouth Rifle produced by Whitney and dated 1864. The rifle is complete with its original rear site, ram-rod, and all factory parts. The metal has an even brown patina and has never been cleaned, and the stock has no issued.  The sling swivels are both present, but the front one is frozen.  The lock works in both half & full cock, and the plate is dated 1864, and the US and Whitneyville marks are faint; however, I do not see an eagle stamp and am not sure if one was ever there. The tang on the barrel has the serial number 9989, and there is still good rifling in the bore. This rifle was designed with a rifle lug for either a saber bayonet made by Collins or the Dahlgren Bowie bayonet knife, and many of these bayonets had to be fitted to the gun. It is hard to find one, especially a Dahlgren Bowie, which will fit. I have a Dahlgren Bowie that appears to have been tooled to fit this rifle, and it is showed attached to the rifle in the last photo.  It goes on with ease and is a perfect fit. The information on that knife is listed separately for sale "U510" and if purchased with this rifle, I can make a package price. $1600.00

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F121.  M1816 - CONVERSION MUSKET:   This is a great example of a M1816 Conversion musket which were in arsenals both North & South at the beginning of the Civil War.   The gun is in very good condition overall with great untouched patina!  The metal has a smooth mellow brown patina on all metal parts and has never been cleaned. The stock is original with some bumps and dings, but no damage.  The lock-plate retains the original Springfield 1827 markings, but the Federal Eagle was removed during the Conversion. I am told the bolster is a HP conversion.   Many of the conversion parts are marked "DD" to include the bottom of the barrel, the lock and the top barrel band.  The ram-rod is not original. $995.00

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F152.  CONFEDERATE SINCLAIR, HAMILTON & COMPANY: During the Civil War a large proportionate of 1853 Enfield Rifle Muskets were supplied by the Sinclair, Hamilton & Company. This is a great example of an untouched out of the attic Confederate marked Enfield rifle-musket with a Sinclair, Hamilton & Company mark so strong & sharp it needs no magnification to read. The lock is marked with a Crown to the rear, and 1862 Tower forward of the hammer. The Sinclair, Hamilton & Company mark on this gun is a Crown over S H / G 3.   Additionally, and thought faint, you can see the outline of the I.C. oval cartouche on the stock flat opposite the loc. This mark is usually found on Sinclair, Hamilton & Company marked guns as one of their inspector marks. After years of research and comparison to otheridentified and know Confederate Enfield muskets, the Crown over S H / G # is now considered 1 of 4 known markings use by Sinclair, Hamilton & Company. The numbers 1-5 are believed to be associated with the supplier.  

The lock is maker marked S&W and the stock is marked H&E. The wood has never been sanded and has a nice light color with great original patina, and all the metal parts have the same even plum-brown patina. The lock functions properly, the nipple is original, and the rifle bore has strong rifling.  If you are looking to add to your collection a Confederate Enfield which shows use, but not abuse, this is it! $2800.00

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F157. AUSTRIAN LORENZ RIFLE:  This Austrian Lorenz has been in a private collection and just recently surfaced at the Wheaton Civil War sword.  It is in great original condition and has indication of being Confederate carried. As most collectors know, the Union was not known for doing any arsenal/repair work on most foreign imported weapons.  This musket has a replaced hammer, which is often found on Confederate arsenal repaired muskets, and there are initials “WSP” carved in the cheek-rest of the stock, which is another common Confederate trait.  The lock-plate is stamped “853” and the gun retains the original complete rear site. The markings match on all the barrel bands, and the ram-rod is original, though tight in the ram-rod channel. The action is crisp and locks in both half and full cock. The barrel is full-length in the original .54 caliber and retains original rifling.  Both of the sling swivels are present and they still pivot. The stock has a fantastic look with excellent grain pattern.  $1150.00

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F158. AUSTRIAN LORENZ RIFLE:  This Austrian Lorenz has been in a private collection and just recently surfaced at the Wheaton Civil War sword.  It is in outstanding original condition and has indication of being Confederate carried.  The lock-plate is void of any date stamp. The ram-rod is original, though tight in the ram-rod channel. The action is crisp and locks in both half and full cock. The barrel, which is maker marked “I,SCH” is full-length in the original .54 caliber and retains strong original rifling, and the rear sight is the high fixed version.  Both of the sling swivels are present and they still pivot. The stock has a fantastic look with excellent grain pattern. On the stock cheek-rest is carved the initials “JHA” with the J being backwards. Also carved in several locations is a star design. This gun is a great example of a Confederate carried Lorenz rifle.  $1150.00

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F160. CONFEDERATE ANCHOR-S  MARKED ENFIELD MUSKET : This Confederate P53 Enfield musket is in great condition, original and completed, with the exception of missing the rear site. These were brazed on and many got knocked off during the war. The musket is well marked and easily identified as Confederate because of the Anchor-S stamp by the butt plate tang . The JS-Anchor viewer stamp, which is well known on Confederate Enfields, was changed to an Anchor-S in 1863; as a result, Enfields dated 1863 will be found with either viewer’s stamp while those from 1864 only have the anchor-S. The lock plate on this musket is marked CROWN - Tower 1863.  The stock is marked Birmingham Small Arms Trade and mark on the side of the stock, as well as its underside ( Crown BSAT) and (P&R) stamps near the tang of the trigger guard. The lock works perfectly, and the rifling is strong.  $2900.00

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F171. "G"- MARKED 1854 LORENZ RIFLE - IDENTIFIED TO A TEXAS SOLDIER: This is a "G" Marked Lorenz Rifle, which came out of Texas and is identified to a soldier from the Texas 11th Infantry through family history. The gun was imported into the Confederacy by the state of Georgia as is evident by the "G" stamp on the side of the musket. It turns out that many of these "G" marked Lorenz rifle came through the blockade via Texas, and may explain how it ended up being issued to a Texas soldier.

The rifle is in outstanding condition. The stock is in great condition and never sanded. On the right side of the stock is the "G" mark, and a three half-cycle design to which itsmeaning is unknown to me. On the left side of the stock are the initials J. S. (most likely is the initials of the first soldier who carried this gun), and a six point star. All metal parts are original and have matching patina; the rear-site is complete and works; all sling swivels are present; and the ramrod is original. Finally, the action is tight and holds in both half and full cock, and the rifling is sharp and strong. Included is the guns original bayonet and it scabbard, both are in amazing condition and fit like a glove. With the gun is a letter from the descendant of Private Phillip K. Koonce, 11th Texas Infantry. It documents how this rifle was passed down from generation to generation and that Phillip K. Koonce owned it as his last known rifle.  Records indicate the existence of a Confederate Pension and he was buried in Shelby County Texas, White Rock Cemetery. Research is complete and I obtained the Pension File for Private Phillip K.Koonce, which will be included.

Koonce initially started in a Home Guard unit then joined the 11th Texas Infantry (Roberts Regulars) around December 1863, and remained with the 11th up to its surrender and disbandment in May 1865. He was with the unit for the Red River campaign, and engagements including Wilson's Farm, Carroll's Mill, Mansfield, and Pleasant Hill in Louisiana.

Here is an outstand “G” marked Lorenz rifle identified to a Texas soldier. $5600.00

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F173.  CONVERSION MUSKET – CONFEDERATE:  This original flint-lock musket was converted to percussion; however, it is only the third I have seen which retained the original hammer with a piece of iron held in place as the striker. This is believed to be a Confederate conversion and there are no known Northern examples. In fact, there is a photos on page 41 of the book “Confederate Longarms and Pistols” by Hill & Anderson of a similar musket conversion. The walnut stock has seen heavy use and there are several brass and iron pins holding the stock together, again something I have only seen in Southern used muskets. Also, the triger action is soft and soetimes does not hold in the half-cocked posiiton. This is not an expensive musket, but one that shows heavy use and great Confederate characteristics. The bayonet in the photos did not come with the rifle and is only included in the photos to show the gun was modified to except one making it a combat serviceable weapon. $875.00

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F177.  SPANISH MODEL 1857 TWO-BAND ENFIELD PERCUSSION RIFLE - POSSIBLE CONFEDERATE  ASSOCIATION:  This is an 1860 dated Spanish M1857 two-band percussion rifle that has an “YBARZABAL/EIBAR” maker marked lock plate. Generally these rifles conform in appearance to the British Enfield Two-Band Rifle. It is serial #1668 on all parts; .577 caliber with a 33” barrel with excellent, bright bore. The metal has an overall dark plum-brown patina with traces of dull gray at the muzzle and on some of the projecting edges, and on the barrel bands and other furniture. The rifle features a distinctive clamped-on rear sight, unique to Spanish military arms of the period, which has both a folding long range ladder and stepped base with extremely high 500 meter “ears”. The walnut stock has a very dark military oil finish with scattered light handling marks and blemishes, heaviest on the comb of the stock and on the left side opposite the lock plate. The mechanism is tight, functions flawlessly, and the original steel ramrod is included. These are interesting weapons that are seldom seen in the United States and, while never procured for the North, may have a possible Confederate association. In a July 19, 1861 letter from Havana, Cuba, W.G. Betterton and J. E. Chalard wrote to Theodore Lewis, acting confidential Confederate agent concerning a number of small arms and ammunition they were preparing to simply.  

(Reprint of information from College Hill Arsenal Web-Site, Credit to Tim Prince)

This is one of the rarest of the Civil War import rifles that you will ever see available for sale. It is a Spanish made copy of the British P-1856 rifle, and there is now very strong evidence that a small number of these guns really did cross the ocean and see service during the American Civil War. In his seminal work “Civil War Guns” William Edwards classifies this rifle as being used during the war, but hypothesizes that it was used by US troops. In the best current work on Civil War used imported guns, Firearms From Europe Second Edition by Hartzler, Whisker, Yantz & Noe provide strong documentation that these may well have been purchased by the Confederate government. In a letter sent to Theodore Lewis (a CS arms purchasing agent), dated July 19, 1861 from CS agents W.G. Betterton & J.E. Chalard. 6,500 “Spanish Enfields” were reported to be in Havana, Cuba and ready for shipment to the Confederacy at $13.00 per gun. However, the paper trail does not end there. While this letter does not confirm the importation of the guns, only the availability of them, the following is concrete evidence that at least a handful of these guns entered America, and were eventually sold as surplus by the Federal government. Whether these surplus guns were US purchases or captured CS purchases we do not know, but this new research proves beyond a shadow of a doubt that at least a few of the Spanish made the rifles made landfall in America. The following documentation comes from the National Archives, and was kindly provided to me by Civil War import arms researcher and author David Noe. All of the following comes from government publication R6 156-124, better known as Abstract of Reports of Sales of Ordnance Stores: 1864-1907. Within these reports the following listings were found for .577 Spanish Rifles:

September 27, 1880: 56 pieces were sold @ $.35 each to Francis Bannerman, all listed as "Unserviceable". (Volume 5, page 373)

October 25, 1881: 1 piece was sold to S.R. Starr for $1.00, listed as "Unserviceable". (Volume 6, page 27)

December 3, 1881: 334 pieces were sold @ $.78 each to Simon Belcher, all listed as "New & Serviceable". (Volume 6, page 38)

One other gun is listed as being sold to Charles Townsend for $1.00, also unserviceable. (Volume 6, page 217)

The information above indicates that for whatever reason, the United States government was in possession of at least 392 Spanish Enfields after the conclusion of the American Civil War. However, there is some more new evidence that helps establish even further the connection between Spanish Rifles and the Confederacy.

A number of long-time collectors and researchers have long postulated that the Confederacy received at least two batches of these Spanish rifles. The first batch in late 1861 or early 1862 has always been associated with the famous Orphan Brigade from Kentucky. The Orphan Brigade was a collection of regiments from Kentucky that were mustered into Confederate service. Because the state of Kentucky never officially joined the Confederacy, these regiments were considered “orphaned”. The brigade included the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th & 9th Kentucky volunteer infantry regiments. These guns are inevitably dated 1861on the lock and have a serial number under 500 on the lock, stock and breech. The second group of rifles appears to have entered the Confederacy in late 1863 or 1864 and are 1863 dated. These guns have higher serial numbers, typically in the, mid 3,000 to mid 4,000 range. We have direct documentation of at least some of these later imports from the Official Records of the War of Rebellion. In a letter dated December 22, 1863, CS Major General Bankhead McGruder reported from his headquarters in Texas that “300 Spanish Rifles” had been recently received. These would have likely been the 1863 dated guns that collectors encounter today. However, the O.R.’s shed little light on the earlier importation of the guns and this is what I have spent some more time researching. The association with the 1861 dated Spanish Enfields and the Orphan Brigade originated with an ID’d Spanish M-1857 rifle that is concretely attributed to a member of Colonel Hiram Hawkins 5th Kentucky infantry. Hawkins helped to establish the 5th Kentucky Infantry, CSA and eventually became the Colonel of the Regiment. Hawkins also helped to outfit the unit out of his own pocket, including the purchase of a number of imported rifles. While no history of the unit officially identifies these guns, there is much circumstantial evidence that there were a number of Spanish Enfields included in that purchase. In addition to the ID’d extant example, there have been a number of the Spanish Enfields that have surfaced in Kentucky, and typically with a strong provenance and family story of Confederate Civil War use. These guns tend to appear in two states of condition: quite good or fairly rough. This is easily explained by the fact that the original 5th KY was mustered out of service on October 20, 1862. The unit was then reformed and the original members were offered the option to go home with an honorable discharge, re-join the newly reformed 5th KY or join another of the many CS units that were being formed in Kentucky at that time. This explains the very good condition guns, as they likely went home with the soldiers who opted out (the ID’d gun in a private collection has this story associated with it). The guns of the men who stayed would show significantly more wear. The final piece of the puzzle as to why Hawkins purchased Spanish guns was recently revealed while doing some research on the Orphan Brigade – that puzzle piece was William Preston. William Preston, who would eventually serve as the Division commander for the 5th KY, was a Kentuckian who had a long political and military service record. Preston served with distinction in the Mexican War as Lt. Col of the 4th KY volunteers. After the war he entered politics and became a very powerful and well-known Whig politician in Kentucky. When the Whig party dissolved, Preston joined the Democratic Party and threw his political support to Democratic Presidential candidate James Buchanan. After his election as President, Buchanan repaid Preston by making him the minister to Spain, and for the next few years Preston was based in Madrid, Spain. In fact, Preston was on his way back to American when the war broke out. A quick search of the Official Records shows that with the coming of the war, the Confederate government relied on Preston to help them establish contacts in Spain for the acquisition of arms. While Preston was skeptical about the availability and quality of Spanish arms, he appears to have been more that willing to help the Confederacy obtain whatever arms were available from Spain. Additional records reveal that Preston returned to the southern states via Cuba. This dovetails with the letter from Cuba and the time line works out well. All of this circumstantial evidence provides strong support for the stories about Confederate used Enfield pattern rifles that were manufactured in Spain. (Reprint of information from College Hill Arsenal Web-Site, Credit to Tim Prince)

This rifle is in outstanding! $3400.00

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F178. CONFEDERATE M1853 ENFIELD ARTILLERY CARBINE – PATTERN 1858:  This is a beauty and rare find! This is the rifle many Confederate Cavalry troops wanted, and is so scarce that many collections are missing it. It is a Confederate M1853 Enfield Artillery carbine – Pattern 1858 and it has just about every Confederate trait you could hope to find. It has the blockade “836” number on the butt plate; the soldiers name and initials carves in the stock; combat damage; matching hash-marks on the barrel, lock, barrel underside, barrel retention screw, and one barrel band. The brass hardware has a beautiful deep unclean patina and the wood has the original finish and never been sanded or altered.  There is some wood damages around the tang and the lock plate and it most likely was sustained in combat. On the underside of the barrel is found the maker name BARNETT as well as additional numbers and initials, but more importantly are the Roman numeral hash-marks. The lock is marked HOLLAND London. On the inside of this lock, you can see four (IIII) hash marks, which match the same on the barrel’s underside to the right of the original initials I.J., and also appear on the top barrel band. On the barrel you will also see the marks (\\/II) which match those on the barrel retention screw. The sling swivels look to have been lost during the war and a hole was bored thought the stock to accommodate a lanyard.

Upon closer examination, I found Confederate hash-marks in the stocks ram-rod channel, which match those on the barrel.  Also, I was able to make out the serial number on the bayonet lug 825 or 875.

A respected collector friend writes: "I think those hash marks are assembly numbers put there during manufacture. They are found on every Enfield I've ever seen. Since the lock matches with all the other hashes.. It was probably made that way .... When the maker ran out of locks and used whatever he could beg, or buy... Such as the CARR locks on LAC/KERR RMs and rifles. To get the case filled and out the door. Business before quality." It is still a rare piece..we figure less than 5000 shipped. And a very low survival rate.

These two-band rifles are scarce and this is made more rare and unique because it is identified to a soldier: Carved on the stock is the last name Goodwyn and the initials WTG. A search of all Confederate records reveals only one match: Private William T. Goodwyn from Tennessee.

A search of censes records for the state of Tennessee shows only one William T Goodwyn from the county of Davidson, and list his age as 21 in 1860, a farmer, and married. He originally enlists as a private on 12/18/1861 when mustered into "C" Co. TN 11th Cavalry Battalion. However, this was a short lived organization, and very little is known of its activities. This explains why only an initial enlistment muster sheet for Goodwyn exists. Shortly thereafter, he surfaces as a private in the “G” Co. TN 50th Infantry Battalion and would remain on this units muster rolls for the remainder of the war.

The 50th Tennessee Regiment, was organized at Fort Donelson December 25, 1861, and formed a portion of the garrison until the surrender of the fort on February 16, 1862, at which place and time, the majority being captured, were sent to Northern prison camps. Goodwyn appears on a Roll of Prisoners of War at Camp Douglas, Illinois, August 1, 1862, and was sent to Vicksburg to be exchanged September 5, 1862.

After being reorganized, the 50th Tennessee Regiment entered the heavy campaigns of Mississippi and East Louisiana and took active part in engagement on Chickasaw Bayou near Vicksburg in the latter part December, 1862. It remained at Port Hudson, Louisiana from January 7 to May 2, 1863, enduring one good shelling in this time. During this period, Goodwyn was still with “G” Company except when listed sick in Hospital at Meridian, Mississippi, May-June 1863. He returns to duty prior to the Battle of Chickamauga.  The 50th Tennessee Regiment went into this battle with 190 men, came out with about 50, and Private William T. Goodwyn was wounded on 13 September, 1863. He would remain in the hospital for the remainder of his service, and died September 10, 1864 of Cholera. This is a great carbine which will easily be a center piece in any collection. $9750.00

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F183. DERINGER RIFLE MUSKET: As the Civil War approached, Deringer sought to obtain military contracts to deliver rifles and rifle muskets to the state of Pennsylvania, and hopefully to the Federal government as well. He approached the US Ordnance Department about the possibilities of his rifle being accepted for US service, and according arms historian, researcher, and author George Moller, it appears that Deringer may have received a somewhat positive reply. However, no known US government contract for his percussion rifles exist. Moller’s research suggests that at least some of the rifles may have been purchased by the state of New Jersey, as that state’s 1861 Quartermaster General Report notes “more than 1,000 percussion rifles of various types in the Trenton State Arsenal, and in the hands of the militia at the beginning of that year.” Moller notes that this same report listed “280 Deringer percussion rifles” were currently issued to various state militia companies. Moller notes that the rifles appear to be a mixture of US M-1817 flintlock rifle parts and newly manufactured parts of the same pattern. While all are 36” long and round, some of the rifles used newly made percussion barrels and others used percussion altered US M-1817 flintlock rifle barrels. This may explain why some of the extant examples have .54 caliber bores (altered flintlock barrels) and some are .58 caliber (newly made barrels). In both cases, the guns featured the stocks and furniture of the Deringer contract M-1817 rifles, and have some rather unique, identifying features. The bolster is integral to the newly made barrels, and is brazed on the barrels altered from flintlock. The rifles also used a unique rear sight that has a 1-inch base that is dovetailed into the barrel and has an L shaped leaf that is set for 100 yards in the down position, and has a pierced aperture that is set for 300 yards when in the up position. Interestingly the rear sight has no graduations or markings on it, and the leaf itself is very thin and flimsy. Examples are known to exist with both browned and bright finishes, but it seems reasonable that the rifles were originally manufactured with browned barrels and furniture, and with color case hardened locks, just as the M-1817 rifles were. Moller’s research suggests that at least 200 of these rifles were produced between 1861 and 1862, and possibly as many as 1,000. However, the scarcity of surviving examples suggests the number is likely closer to 200 than to 1,000, making these relatively rare rifles on today’s collectors market.

This is an example of the rare Deringer Rifle. The gun retains the large majority of its original finish; is 100% correct and original with the exception of the missing rear site. The lock of the rifle is crisp and marked: US / DERINGER / PHILADEL. It is suggested that the presence of the US mark suggests the use of an old (although undrilled) US M-1817 lock plate. The 2-line marking stamp with the Deringer name is the exact same stamp found on the locks of his US M-1842 Naval Box Lock pistols with the rifled bores, but the separate US stamp appears to be a different die than the one used on those pistols. As the two markings were likely applied at two different times, the US might have been struck on the newly made percussion lock in anticipation of US government sales, and not because the lock plate was old stock. The lock follows the general shape and contour of the M-1817 rifle lock, but was never drilled for any of the external flintlock battery screws, nor was the top edge machined for the brass pan. The lock is smooth, with only some very lightly scattered pinpricking and minor surface oxidation. The US M-1842 style hammer has a medium pewter gray base color, combined with mottled browns and darker grays. The lock works perfectly on all positions and remains very crisp.

The barrel has an even brown patina, but does show some scattered patches of lightly oxidized surface roughness, scattered pinpricking and minor peppering. The barrel is one of the newly made percussion barrels with an integral, elongated bolster. The only mark on the top of the barrel is a single P proof mark and none on the bottom of the barrel. The Roman numerals XV is found on the stock under the barrel. The bore of the rifle is in about EXCELLENT condition and retains very crisp, deeply cut rifling that extends through the muzzle with no crown, as on Deringer’s “Common Rifles”. The bore of the rifle is .58 caliber, so it was clearly intended for use with Minié style ammunition, even though the rifling pitch rate was not optimum for that type of bullet.  The matchbox cover, buttplate and trigger guard all retain strong amounts of brown patina.  The original folding leaf rear sight is missing, but the original front sight is in place on the top of the barrel, near the muzzle. Both of the original sling swivels are in place, and the original brass-tipped, trumpet head ramrod is in the channel under the barrel. The rod is full length and retains fine threads o the end to attach cleaning implements. The stock of the rifle has a good look and remains very crisp and sharp throughout. The stock is solid and complete and free of any breaks or significant repairs.

Overall, this is a really wonderful example of a very scarce American Civil War militia rifle by one of the most famous American gunmakers of all time. These Deringer Percussion Rifles were made in very limited quantities, but it appears that at least some were purchased by the state of New Jersey in 1861 and at least 280 “Deringer Percussion Rifles” were issued to the state militia during that year. These rifles are rarely found on the market for sale. This is one of those great scarce Civil War rifles that just does not come up for sale very often. It is one of those guns you’ll wish you had jumped on when you see it sold to another collector, so don’t miss your chance. $1995.00

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F184. DERINGER RIFLE MUSKET: As the Civil War approached, Deringer sought to obtain military contracts to deliver rifles and rifle muskets to the state of Pennsylvania, and hopefully to the Federal government as well. He approached the US Ordnance Department about the possibilities of his rifle being accepted for US service, and according arms historian, researcher, and author George Moller, it appears that Deringer may have received a somewhat positive reply. However, no known US government contract for his percussion rifles exist. Moller’s research suggests that at least some of the rifles may have been purchased by the state of New Jersey, as that state’s 1861 Quartermaster General Report notes “more than 1,000 percussion rifles of various types in the Trenton State Arsenal, and in the hands of the militia at the beginning of that year.” Moller notes that this same report listed “280 Deringer percussion rifles” were currently issued to various state militia companies. Moller notes that the rifles appear to be a mixture of US M-1817 flintlock rifle parts and newly manufactured parts of the same pattern. While all are 36” long and round, some of the rifles used newly made percussion barrels and others used percussion altered US M-1817 flintlock rifle barrels. This may explain why some of the extant examples have .54 caliber bores (altered flintlock barrels) and some are .58 caliber (newly made barrels). In both cases, the guns featured the stocks and furniture of the Deringer contract M-1817 rifles, and have some rather unique, identifying features. The bolster is integral to the newly made barrels, and is brazed on the barrels altered from flintlock. The rifles also used a unique rear sight that has a 1-inch base that is dovetailed into the barrel and has an L shaped leaf that is set for 100 yards in the down position, and has a pierced aperture that is set for 300 yards when in the up position. Interestingly the rear sight has no graduations or markings on it, and the leaf itself is very thin and flimsy. Examples are known to exist with both browned and bright finishes, but it seems reasonable that the rifles were originally manufactured with browned barrels and furniture, and with color case hardened locks, just as the M-1817 rifles were. Moller’s research suggests that at least 200 of these rifles were produced between 1861 and 1862, and possibly as many as 1,000. However, the scarcity of surviving examples suggests the number is likely closer to 200 than to 1,000, making these relatively rare rifles on today’s collectors market.

This is an example of the rare Deringer Rifle made from parts converted from earlier Flintlock muskets. The gun retains the large majority of its original finish; is 100% correct and original with a blade rear site. The lock of the rifle is crisp and marked: US / DERINGER / PHILADEL and is a US M-1817 lock plate convert from flint to percussion. The lock follows the general shape and contour of the M-1817 design and originally was drilled for the external flintlock battery screws. The lock is smooth, with only some very lightly scattered pinpricking and minor surface oxidation, and is dated 1844. The US M-1842 style hammer has a medium pewter gray base color, combined with mottled browns and darker grays. The lock works perfectly on all positions and remains very crisp.

The barrel has an even brown patina, and has the Belgium cone conversion. The marks on the top of the barrel include a single P JH & US proof mark and JH, 55 003 on the bottom of the barrel, with 003 on the underside of the tag, and 1842 on its top. The bore of the rifle is in about EXCELLENT condition and retains very crisp, deeply cut rifling that extends through the muzzle with no crown, as on Deringer’s “Common Rifles”. The bore of the rifle is .54 caliber bores (altered flintlock barrels).  The ramrod is full length and retains fine threads o the end to attach cleaning implements. The stock of the rifle has a good look and remains very crisp and sharp throughout. It is solid and complete and free of any breaks or significant repairs.

Overall, this is a really wonderful example of a very scarce American Civil War militia rifle by one of the most famous American gunmakers of all time. These Deringer Percussion Rifles were made in very limited quantities, but it appears that at least some were purchased by the state of New Jersey in 1861 and at least 280 “Deringer Percussion Rifles” were issued to the state militia during that year. These rifles are rarely found on the market for sale. This is one of those great scarce Civil War rifles that just does not come up for sale very often. It is one of those guns you’ll wish you had jumped on when you see it sold to another collector, so don’t miss your chance. $1900.00

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F185.  3-BAND 1853 ENFIELD MUSKET: This is a model 1853 3-Band Enfield rifle-musket made for export to America for the Civil War. It is totally void of English or Confederate inspection marks, and is one sold to the North (Union). The stock is all original with many dings and dents, but has never been sanded. The barrel was cleaned, but not the barrel bands. The rear and front sight are original, and there is still strong rifling in the bore. It has the original rear sling swivel, but not the front. On the butt of the stock is the circular Birmingham Small Arms Trade stamp, on the underside near the trigger tang is another BSAT stamp. Looks to be double stamped, but the forward one is faint. On the underside of the stock is maker name: Joseph Wilson.  The barrel was made by Ezra Millward, but is also marked with the retailer name Joseph Wilson.  Matching assembly marks “M  X \ \” appear on the bottom of the barrel, lock, and underside of the trigger housing. If the barrel would not have been clean at one time, I would be asking $1800 for it, but since that happen, it is discounted to a lower price. $1475.00

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F186. WHITNEY ENFIELD RIFLE - MUSKET, SECONDARY CONFEDERATE: Between 1860 and 1863, Whitney produced somewhere between 3,300 and 3,500 of his “Enfield” rifle muskets. Other than having a general appearance similar to the Enfield, the guns were really an amalgamation of parts available to Whitney. The guns had 40” long, .58 caliber barrels that generally resembled that of the US M-1855 and M-1861 series of muskets, with round bolsters with clean out screws. Like most Whitney arms, the gun barrels were batch or serial numbered with an alphanumeric mark on top, behind the rear sight. The muskets either had a long-base Whitney designed rear sight that resembled that of the P-1853 Enfield and early US M-1855s, or had a Whitney “Mid-Range” rear sight that was a single L-shaped leaf with aperture that was mounted in a base similar to the US M-1858 and M-1861 rear sight. The front sight/bayonet lug was of the US pattern, with the outer diameter of the barrel being designed to accept either US M-1855 or British P-1853 pattern socket bayonets. The locks were a uniquely Whitney design. They were flat and were flush mounted in the mortise with a rounded rear, and an odd projection between the bolster and the hammer. The hammers were similar to US M-1855 and M-1861 hammers in profile, but again, distinctly Whitney. The lock was secured by two bolts that passed through brass lock escutcheons with rounded ears, similar to the British Enfield design, but again, slightly different. The trigger guard was more similar to US than British designs, in that it was two piece with the guard bow attached to a separate trigger plate. However, the bow was made of brass and the plate was iron. The brass guard bows were likely overruns from the US M-1841 Mississippi rifle contract, as they are of that exact pattern. The stock had either a Whitney style end cap or a British style brass Enfield cap, apparently based upon availability. Pair of sling swivels was provided; one on the face of the trigger guard bow and one on wide upper barrel band. The two types of ramrods that were provided with the guns were distinctly Whitney designs. Both had steel shanks and brass heads. One style had a cupped, semi-tulip shaped head similar to those on US M-1855 and M-1861 rifle muskets, and the other had a sort of trumpet style brass head, left over from M-1841 rifle production. The stocks were modified P-1853 Enfield stocks, altered to fit the components that Whitney installed in them. While the majority of the guns appear to have been finished bright, at least some (if note more) were apparently blued, as a handful of extant examples retain at least portions of their original, period blued finish. This finish would have been appropriate if Whitney was really trying to pass these second class arms off as real P-1853 Enfield Rifle Muskets.

While the guns were hardly uniform and followed no specifically established military pattern, Whitney managed to sell some 3,300-3,500 of them between 1860 and 1863. His largest customer was the state of Maryland, who ordered 2,000 of the guns immediately after the John Brown raid on the Harpers Ferry Arsenal. Various sources note that the guns were delivered in 1861 and used to arm the Maryland Volunteer Militia. According to Flayderman’s Guide to Antique American Arms, some 370 of those guns were captured by southern sympathizers during the April 19, 1861 riots in Baltimore. In November of 1860 the state of Georgia contracted for 1,700 of the guns, but it is believed that no more than 1,225 were actually delivered. In late 1860, the Clarke County, Mississippi militia (known as the Enterprise Guards) purchased 75 of the Whitney Enfield rifle muskets. The “Enterprise Guards” eventually became the core of Company B of the 14th Mississippi Volunteer Infantry. The US Ordnance Department acquired 100 of the guns on the open market through Schuyler, Hartley & Graham of New York, purchasing them on August 10, 1861. After the outbreak of hostilities, it appears that some smaller amounts of the guns were sold through agents such as William Read & Son and Fitch & Waldo.

The Whitney Enfield Rifle Musket offered here is in about Exceptional overall condition. The gun is a classic Whitney pattern Enfield with a full-length, 40” 6-groove barrel, brass nose cap, brass trigger-guard steel butt-plate, steel tipped Whitney rammer and a long-range Whitney rear sight. The gun is all original, and all steel parts have a plum-brown patina. The entire stock is in amazing condition with, Enfield pattern barrel bands. The barrel is unmarked, other than with the serial number behind the front sight. The bore of the gun is in about VERY GOOD condition. It retains strong rifling, but shows light scattered pitting along its entire length. The lock of the gun is crisply marked in a single line, forward of the hammer: E. WHITNEY, and functions flawlessly on all positions, crisply engaging the half cock and full cock positions, and responds to the trigger, as it should. The gun retains its Whitney pattern, long base, long-range rear sight, as well as the front sight/bayonet lug. Both sling swivels are present on the gun, and the original Whitney ramrod with a steel tulip shaped head is present in the channel under the barrel. The rod is full length and retains good threads at its end. The brass furniture all has a deep, unclean patina that is very attractive.

Many of the known Maryland Whitney Enfield are marked and identified to the Maryland Volunteer Militia. This gun does not have those markings and is believed to have gone to the state of Georgia.  Overall this is a really attractive, crisp and untouched example of a rather rare and important Whitney produced Enfield rifle musket. These guns do not appear on the market very often. Whether you are a collector of Whitney long arms, or simply a collector of Civil War era military arms, you will be very happy with this wonderful rifle musket. $3500.00

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F187. P-1856 IRON MOUNTED 2-BAND ENFIELD RIFLE:  The Pattern 1856 Short Rifle was the standard British military rifle of the era, and had a 33” barrel, with a .577 caliber bore which was rifled with 3-groove, progressive depth rifling. The rear sight was graduated to 1,100 yards and was set just behind the rear barrel band; further forward on the barrel than the sights used on the rifle musket. The rifle was equipped with a bayonet lug on the right side of the barrel, near the muzzle, to accommodate a Yataghan blade saber bayonet. The earliest production rifles had a short “key” or “lead” forward of the actual lug, but this feature was quickly eliminated and the majority of P-1856 rifles have lugs without that short guide. The rifle had a rear sling swivel attached to a lug, screwed into the rear of the extended iron trigger guard tang, and the upper swivel attached to the upper barrel band. As with the P-1853 rifle muskets, the iron mounted rifles had blued barrels and color case hardened locks and hammers. The furniture (trigger guard, butt plate, stock escutcheons, nose cap etc.) of the “iron mounted” rifles was made of iron rather than brass, and was color casehardened (with the exception of the nose cap) as well. Short rifles were lighter and handier than rifle muskets and were preferred for use not only by Confederate infantry that functioned as skirmishers and sharpshooters, but by Confederate cavalry that tended to operate as mounted infantry, rather than as traditional heavy cavalry. Confederate cavalry commanders J.E.B. Stuart and Nathan Bedford Forrest were both proponents of issuing short rifles to their cavalry troopers. Short rifles with saber bayonets are known to have been issued to Confederate infantry regiments serving in Kershaw’s South Carolina Brigade, the 10th, 16th, 18th & 51st Georgia, the 13th, 17th, 18th & 51st Mississippi, the 41st Tennessee, the 1st Battalion of Texas Sharpshooters, and the 5th Texas. Mounted Confederate units that are known to have been issued the “short Enfield rifle” were Cobb’s & Phillip’s Legions of Georgia, the 18th & 19th Mississippi cavalry (McCulloch’s Brigade of Forrest’s 2nd Cavalry), the 2nd North Carolina cavalry, the 3rd, 6th, 9th & 27th Texas cavalry (Ross’ brigade) and the 7th Virginia cavalry.

There are several indicators which likely make this a Confederate import rifle. First it was made by Parker Field & Sons. During the Civil War, Parker, Field & Sons delivered thousands of Enfield rifle muskets to the Confederacy, primarily through Sinclair, Hamilton & Company. They also delivered some of the Enfields purchased by the state of Georgia.

This P-1856 Iron Mounted Rifle is in about GOOD+ to NEAR VERY GOOD condition and has a wonderful, untouched and fresh from the attic patina and is complete. The lock is marked in one line, forward of the hammer, PARKER FIELD & SONS without the typical British “Crown” mark to the rear of the hammer. The gun is a commercial one and bears no British military marks at all, which is typical of guns bound for export markets. The upper left of the breech is marked with the usual London commercial View and Proof marks, with no external gauge mark. On most London commercially proved guns, the gauge mark is found under the barrel. The interior of the lock is clearly marked 4 JD and the name "R W Aston" around the mainspring boss, indicating Aston made the lock. Underside of the barrel is marked John Clive (barrel maker) Field  PF  T  68   and is about 30%-40% blue.The barrel of the gun is primarily a smooth medium mottled plum-brown patina. The mating mark | | | | is found under the barrel and in rammer channel, but none visible on edges of lock, and the top of barrel is marked with Parker Field address, but it is hard to see. The breech shows some the expected gun power and there is the normal loss of wood, which get burned away during heavy use. The bore of the musket is shot out with no rifling remaining. This is another common trait seen in many Confederate used rifles. The two barrel bands retain the “doughnut” shaped keepers on their tension screws that are usually missing, and have matching patina to the barrel. The action of the gun is mechanically excellent and functions crisply on all positions. The lock has the same chocolate to bronze brownish patina as the rest of the gun. The lock markings are quite crisp and legible, although the lock does show some very lightly scattered pin pricking on its surface, mostly on the forward portion. The steel furniture has a nice, untouched, dark patina, which is very attractive. The long-range rear sight is original and is complete and the elevation bar does move, but is tight. The ramrod is original, and the bayonet lug was filled down, but is still visible. Finally, the number 7 is stamped on the underside of the stock. This was another common modification many Confederate Calvary soldiers would do since a bayonet was not necessary and the lug would only get caught-up on something while riding. This is a rare Enfield rifle and totally untouched. $1995.00

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F188.  STARR TYPE II "NATIONAL ARMORY BROWN" M1816 CONVERSION MUSKET: This is a Starr National Armory Brown M1816 which was converted to percussion: M1816 Flintlock Musket. The Type II musket have a brown finish on all iron parts excepting the lock, and N. Starr, Middleton, CT. produced 15,530 muskets between1829-1840. This is one of his early guns. The lock plate is marked US over sunburst over N. STARR (in an arc); behind the hammer marked vertically; MIDDtn/CONN/1833, and an 8-point star below the date, which is found on early dated muskets. This has a Belgium style conversion with the nipple-cone in the top of the barrel. The gun stock has a deep rich brown color and has never been sanded and is in great condition. On the right side of the butt is carved a Masonic simple and the initials G. W. R. with addition lettered below that are hard to discern. The barrel has the original inspection marks and has a nice plum-brown patina. The front bayonet stud is marked number 3, and the original ram-rod is still with the gun. The action on the lock is tight in both positions. $1050.00

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F189. CONFEDERATE 3-BAND ENFIELD RIFLE-MUSKET CAPTURED & UNION REISSUED TWICE: This is a Confederate import 3-band Enfield rifle musket,which was captured and reissued to several Union soldiers. The gun is in amazing condition and 100% original and complete with matching patina on all metal parts. A CROWN SH/G3 is double stamped by the trigger guard tang. After years of research and comparison to other identified and know Confederate Enfield muskets, the Crown over S H / G # is now considered one of the known markings use by Sinclair, Hamilton & Company, and the numbers 1-5 are believed to be associated with the supplier of these guns.

The lock plate onthis musket is marked Tower and dated 1862; the barrel is marked T. H.  / \\ and those makes appear on the lock, / \\ on the lock screws. On the left side of the stock are the letters J S L.  These are believed to be the initials of the original Confederate soldiers who carried the gun; however, there are no other marks to help make a positive identification.

On underside abovethe trigger guard is carved C W INGE and scratched into the trigger guard tang is the name INGERSOLL. The Civil War data base list two Charles W. Ingersoll in the infantry from the state on Indiana. One was with the 86th Indiana Infantry regiment 3/5/1864 – 6/5/1865, and the other with the 51st Indiana Infantry regiment 3/3/1864 – 12/13/1865. Again there are no additional marks to positively say which one had the gun and to say otherwise would be speculative.

On the barrel is stamped the name John S Lozier, and there are five mother-of-peal inlays which help identify this gun to a John S Lozier from Ohio.  On one side there is a Heart, Crescent moon, and a Beech tree leaf, and on the lock-plate side a small Heart and Shield. The key to this identification is the Beech tree leaf inlay because this tree was commonplace to the entire state of Ohio. The remaining inlays conform to the Corps badged associated to the units in which Lozier served. John S. Lozier (Losier) served in the 86th Ohio Infantry Regiment 6/22/1863 – 2/10/1864 (second organization), and the 164th Ohio Infantry Regiment 5/11/1864 – 8/27/1864.  

This gun was carried by a Confederate and two Union Soldiers.How and when the gun changed hands is unknown; however, the markings on the gun tell a great store! Great Rifling! $4500.00

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F190. SINCLAIR, HAMILTON & CO.  P-1856 BRASS MOUNTED 2-BAND ENFIELD RIFLE:  The Pattern 1856 Short Rifle was the standard British military rifle of the era, and had a 33” barrel, with a .577 caliber bore which was rifled with 3-groove, progressive depth rifling. The rear sight was graduated to 1,100 yards and was set just behind the rear barrel band; further forward on the barrel than the sights used on the rifle musket. The rifle was equipped with a bayonet lug on the right side of the barrel, near the muzzle, to accommodate a Yataghan blade saber bayonet. The earliest production rifles had a short “key” or “lead” forward of the actual lug, but this feature was quickly eliminated and the majority of P-1856 rifles have lugs without that short guide. The rifle had a rear sling swivel attached to a lug, screwed into the rear of the extended iron trigger guard tang, and the upper swivel attached to the upper barrel band. Short rifles were lighter and handier than rifle muskets and were preferred for use not only by Confederate infantry that functioned as skirmishers and sharpshooters, but by Confederate cavalry that tended to operate as mounted infantry, rather than as traditional heavy cavalry. Confederate cavalry commanders J.E.B. Stuart and Nathan Bedford Forrest were both proponents of issuing short rifles to their cavalry troopers. Short rifles with saber bayonets are known to have been issued to Confederate infantry regiments serving in Kershaw’s South Carolina Brigade, the 10th, 16th, 18th& 51st Georgia, the 13th, 17th, 18th & 51st Mississippi, the 41st Tennessee, the 1st Battalion of Texas Sharpshooters, and the 5th Texas. Mounted Confederate units that are known to have been issued the “short Enfield rifle” were Cobb’s & Phillip’s Legions of Georgia, the 18th & 19th Mississippi cavalry (McCulloch’s Brigade of Forrest’s 2nd Cavalry), the 2nd North Carolina cavalry, the 3rd, 6th, 9th & 27th Texas cavalry (Ross’ brigade) and the 7th Virginia cavalry.

This P-1856 Brass Mounted Rifle is in about Very GOOD+ condition and has a wonderful look. It is the civilian version of the Iron mount style and often sold to the Confederacy. The lock is marked TOWER 1861 with the Crown mark to the rear of the hammer. The gun is a commercial one and bears no British military marks at all, which is typical of guns bound for the export markets. The upper left of the breech is marked with the usual London commercial View and Proof marks. On the underside near the trigger tang is stamped a CROWN SH over C. This is for Sinclair, Hamilton & Company. The gun comes compete with the bayonet.  $3400.00

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