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RROD01. SERIAL NUMBERED - CONFEDERATE ENFIELD RIFLE RAM-ROD: This is a serial number ram-rod for a Confederate Enfield Rifle. It is serial number 6301 and is 38 3/4 inches long. This number places it in the range of the 500 guns produced by James Kerr. Kerr Enfield rifles represent slightly less than 2% of the total delivered and to date only 6 of the 500 P-1853s delivered by James Kerr are known to still exist. The Enfield rifle with this number is one of those surviving examples, but the whereabouts is unknown. It has the same serial number and is “K” marked forward of the butt plate with a JS-Anchor worn off. If you have this rifle let me know. Shipping & Insurance is included. $2000.00

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F362. CONFEDERATE “K” & "JS ANCHOR" MARKED - NUMBERED P-1853 ENFIELDDuring the early days of the war, Confederate purchasing agents secured contracts for the British P-1853 Enfield Rifle Musket, and according to Confederate Chief of Ordnance, Josiah Gorgas’s, some 70,980 Long Enfield Rifles were purchased from the beginning of the war through the end of 1862. These numbers only account for Confederate central government purchases, and not those purchased by states or by profiteers. The majority were purchased from S. Isaac, Campbell & Company or Sinclair, Hamilton & Company. They had several contracts with the Confederacy to deliver P-1853 Enfield Rifle Muskets, with the typical contract terms requiring 30,000 stands of arms to be delivered over a six-month period. Sinclair, Hamilton & Company appears to have received at least five of these Confederate central government contracts for P-1853 Enfield Rifle Muskets. The second of these contracts for 30,000 P-1853 “Long Enfields’ is the one represented by the guns with the JS / (ANCHOR) inspection mark, along with the engraved butt plate tang inventory control numbers. These numbers ran from 1-10,000 in three series. The first series had no suffix after the number, while the second series of 10,000 had an “A” suffix under the inventory number and the third series of 10,000 had a “B” suffix. Sinclair, Hamilton & Company acquired their arms through “Five Furnishers.”  The London furnishers were the longtime gunmakers EP Bond and Parker, Field & Co, with James Kerr receiving a tiny portion of the contract (only 500 guns). The balance was delivered by the Birmingham firms CW James and W.C. Scott & Son. The furnishers often marked the guns delivered with a large single letter on the upper comb of the stock: B for Bond, F for Parker, Field & Co, J for James, K for Kerr and S for Scott & Son. An October 31, 1861 dated letter from Sinclair, Hamilton & Co. notes that the contract was divided between the furnishers as follows: 

CW James: 10,000
Scott & Sons: 8,000 guns
E.P. Bond: 6,000 guns
Parker, Field & Co: 5,500 guns
James Kerr: 500 guns

Kerr represent slightly less than 2% of the total delivered. To date only 6 of the 500 P-1853s delivered by James Kerr under this contract have been noted. Of the 6 known specimens, 2 are marked CARR / LONDON on the lock, three have blank unmarked locks, and one is marked 1861 / TOWER. Two of the guns are the obsolete “Type II” P-1853 Enfield rifle musket with solid barrel bands retained by springs, and the other are the typical “Type III” Enfield pattern arms. Due to the very small delivery total and extremely low survival rate, James Kerr furnished, P-1853 Enfields are extremely rare and the hardest examples to locate! It is often missing from even the most advanced collections of Confederate imported Enfields. This gun is in attic condition and is complete with the original numbered ram-rod, barrel bands and sling swivels, but missing the rear site blade. The butt plate and ram-rod are serial number 5945 and the letter “K” is stamped in the stock forward of the butt plate tang. The JS Anchor stamp is all gone. Sometime with magnification I think I can see a faint outline, but then I see nothing. Shipping & Insurance included. Shipping & Insurance included. $8,600.00

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F371. WHITNEY NAVY REVOLVER - 2ND MODEL, 4TH TYPE: This is a Whitney Navy percussion revolver. The Whitney Navy was a 6-shot, .36 caliber, single action percussion revolver that was manufactured from the late 1850s through the early 1860s. Some 33,000 Whitney Navy revolvers were produced during the production run, with many seeing US government use. The US Army acquired 10,587 of the revolvers between 1861 and 1864 and the US Navy purchased an additional 6,226 between 1863 and 1865. The state of New Jersey purchased 920 Whitney Navy revolvers in 1863, but 792 of those guns were subsequently resold to the US Army in 1863 and 1864. A number of Whitney Navy revolvers also appear to have been acquired by the South and saw service during the American Civil War. Some were purchased prior to the outbreak of hostilities and many more after the conflict started. These later production guns were no doubt obtained through a combination of capturing weapons and purchasing the guns surreptitiously from secondary retailers rather than Whitney. At least two-dozen Whitney Navy revolvers are known to have been repaired for use by the 4th Virginia “Black Horse” Cavalry, and a handful of identified Whitney Navy revolvers with Confederate provenance exist was well. It is not surprising that the revolver found favor on both sides of the Mason-Dixon line. This Whitney Navy revolver is all original and complete with matching numbers. The serial number "23867 A". The number is stamped on the cylinder, loading lever and underside of the barrel, and on the grips. The action is tight and the hammer properly drops, but cylinder pin only cycles the cylinder if pointed downwards. The cylinder scene is weak but visible under magnification, and the grips are original and complete. Shipping & Insurance included. $1425.00

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“Z”

F379. RARE! - CONFEDERATE CAPTURED, CLEANED & REPAIRED NEW MODEL SHARPS, UNION RECAPTURED AND POST WAR CONVERTED TO .50-70 CARBINE: This is an extremely rare Civil War & Post War Sharps Carbine. It originally started as a New Model Sharps and was issued early in 1865 to union troops, was Confederate captured and went through the Clean & Repaired process, butthen Union recaptured and later converted to .50 – 70 in 1868 for Indian War use.  The serial number on this gun is C19440. C19358 went to the 15th New York Cavalry and C19543 went to the 8th New York Cavalry, so it is likely this gun when to one of those two units, which where both fighting in Virginia during the advance on Richmond. This Sharps Carbine went through the Confederate C&R (clean, repair) process and has the inspection mark “Z” on the underside to the rear of the trigger tang. This mark is associated with Captain Louis Zimmer, who was involved with Confederate clean and repair operations at Richmond. It is unknown exactly what work was done on the gun during the C & R process, and I doubt the gun was ever reissued to Confederate troops as Richmond fell. The gun is in amazing condition. The barrel is marked New Model 1863 to the rear of the site with faint HARTFORD CT mark to the front. The SHARP maker mark is on the front of the lock with the correct marks on the opposite side. The barrel retains 98% + original finish and has a bright 6-grove bore, and there is a good amount of case-coloring on the gun. The stock is in near-mint condition and there is the post-war cartouche that was applied when the gun was converted to .50-70. There is a small chip on the forearm of the stock, but otherwise also near-mint. From February 1868 to October 1869, approximately 32,190 carbines were switched over to the .50-70 cartridge. The carbines were immediately sent to the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th Cavalry Regiments in the West. This is an amazing example of a Sharps Carbine which saw action in Virginia during the Civil War, was Confederate captured and Union recaptured, and later converted to .50-70 for Indian War Service. Shipping & Insurance included. $7700.00

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F385. RARE - CONFEDERATE HOLSTER & MARTIALLY MARKED SAVAGE NAVY REVOLVER: Confederate holsters are rare to find, and it is even more uncommon to find one for a Savage Navy Revolver.  I purchased this directly from Tim Prince of (College Hill Arsenal) and just love its look! The holster is brown leather; complete with the flap, and has the complete back belt loop, but missing the retention button. It is worn at the hammer location and at the bottom where the barrel is visible. The Savage Navy revolver has an even brown patina; is missing the front site; properly cycles; has original grip which have a carved cross over the original cartouche, but does not hold in the full cock position. Shipping & Insurance included. $3900.00

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F395. CONFEDERATE ALTERED - HARPERS FERRY 1842 MUSKET - 1845 DATED:  This 1842 Harpers Ferry musket is Confederate altered to the size of a 2-band rifle, and once had a Confederate blade site. It is in attic-found condition and has not been cleaned and is all original! The stock is rough with a few splits in the stock near the left side of the barrel, but the wood is strong and not loose. The lock properly functions in both half & full cock position and is dated the same as the barrel;1845. The ramrod is originally for an 1860 Springfield rifle, but was shorten and treaded at its bottom, not just cut down. On the top of the barrel, you can see two groves for a Confederate blade site, which is long gone. There is also is saddle wear on the underside forward of the trigger guard.  Shipping & Insurance is included. $995.00

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F399. COOK & BROTHER LOCK - CONFEDERATE ARSENAL REPAIRED - “G” MARKED, SERIAL NUMBER BUTT PLATE, JS-ANCHOR MARKED 1853 ENFIELD RIFLE: This is a “G” marked, serial numbered butt plate and JS-Anchor marked 1853 Enfield that was arsenal repaired with a Cook & Brother lock and a replaced PRITCHER barrel. This work was most likely done at the Macon Georgia armory. The “G” marked is faint as a result of the stoke being armory refurbished; the butt plate serial number is 1449, and the JS Anchor is readable. The original lock was replaced with a Cook & Brother lock, which has the Confederate flag is date 1863, Athens Ga. and serial numbered. The main spring is missing as well as one internal screw, which I believe can be replaced making the lock proper function. The original barrel most likely sustained battle damage and was replace with a replacment PRITCHER barrel as is evident by the vice clamp marks. Also, the nipple cone was modified to match up to the Cook & Brother hammer. The original serial number places this gun within the Gladiator range. A Gladiator range serial number butt plate Enfield is rare, even more unique is one that was Macon arsenal repaired with a replacement barrel and a Cook & Brother lock. Shipping & Insurance included. $5600.00

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F406. SERIAL NUMBERED 1853 ENFIELD RIFLE – CONFEDERATE ARSENAL MODIFIED TO COMBAT SHOTGUN: During the Civil War, the South recovered weapons and other military items off the battlefield to be refurbished and reused. For those weapons being restored to original condition, the Clear & Repair system in Richmond was utilized. However, there was another earlier system established to convert some guns for a purpose other than originally designed. Many full-sized guns were cut-down and smoothed bored making them into shotguns to use buck & ball ammunition. Buck-and-ball was a common load use by Confederates and consisted of a large caliber lead musket ball combined with three to six buckshot pellets. This was not a post-war conversion, but done early in the war. This is an early Confederate Enfield rifle. It has serial number 8056 on the butt plate; “S” stamped on the top of the stock for the maker Smith and a JS Anchor on the underside by the trigger tang. The barrel is reduced to 28 1/2 inches and smooth bored; the rear site was removed; the barrel has a cut for a front site and a cut for a bayonet lug. There is no rear swivel, and the lock is marked CROWN /TOWER/1861. The lock properly functions, and has the modified ram-rod, which is rare. If this were a full size gun it would be priced around $6000.00, but this is available at a reduced price. Shipping & Insurance is included. $2300.00

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F427. ENGLISH - BRITISH PATTERN 1855 ROYAL ENGINEER’S CARBINE - ROYAL SAPPERS & MINERS CARBINE, WITH LANCASTER’S OVAL BORE: In January of 1852, the British Board of Ordnance began taking the first tentative steps towards designing what would eventually become the Pattern 1853 Enfield Rifle Musket. It was the knowledge that a smaller bore rifle musket was necessary to stay competitive with the armies of Europe. The submissions by the various makers were all different calibers and with different patterns of rifling and each used a bullet of their own design, with only constant that the bullet weight was to be about one ounce, a weight considered the minimum for an effective infantry musket. Lancaster’s submission was his “oval bore” design. This was a mechanical rifling system that from all appearances was a smoothbore design. However, the bore was very slightly oval in cross-section with a minor axis of .543” and a major axis of .557” at the breech, which was slightly reduced to .540” and .55” at the muzzle. The bore itself twisted along the length of the barrel, creating mechanical rifling similar to the systems that would be subsequently patented by Sir Joseph Whitworth and Westley Richards. The pitch of the rifling also increased along the length of the bore, in other words the rifling spun slower at the breech and more quickly at the muzzle. The oval bore rifling performed very well in the trials, as did the five-groove design of Wilkinson and the 3-groove design submitted by Enfield. These experimentations resulted in what would become the basic design specifications for the Pattern 1853 Enfield Rifle musket: a 39” barrel secured by three-barrel bands, with a .577” bore, rifled with 3-grooves with a 1:78 rate of twist, weighing in at slightly more than 9 pounds including the socket bayonet, which would incorporate a locking ring. It was further specified that the lock would include a “swivel” (stirrup) so that the mainspring did not bear directly upon the tumbler as it did in earlier designs. The specification regarding a rear sight remained somewhat open to discussion, as several designs had been submitted, several of which were quite good. Interestingly the rifling pattern was not completely established either, for although the initial specifications called for the three-groove bore of Enfield design, the performance of the Lancaster and Wilkinson pattern rifling left significant doubt in the minds of the Small Arms Committee as to whether the correct decision had been taken as to the style of rifling to be use. A bullet design, which was a collaboration of William Pritchett and William Metford, was adopted for use in the nominally .577 bores of the guns.  In January of 1853, an order for 1,000 of these newly specified rifle muskets, 500 with one pattern or rear sight and 500 with another, was placed, in order to begin real field trials of the weapon. In the end the sight designed by Charles Lancaster became the rear sight that we are familiar with on the Pattern 1853 Enfield today. The result of the committee’s lack of confidence that they had “chosen wisely” regarding the rifling system was readily apparent in early 1853, when Wilkinson and Lancaster were both asked to submit Pattern 1853 Enfield Rifle Muskets that conformed exactly to the pattern as was newly adopted, with the only exception being the rifling of the bores, which were to be of the two makers’ patent designs. In June of 1853, the trials of the three rifling systems began and the Lancaster oval bore shot better than either of its competitors. Initially, Lancaster asked to have his guns fired with his own cartridges that used specially sifted powder. However, it was soon discovered that the standard British military service load with standard service powder and the 530 grain Metford-Pritchett bullet shot better in the Lancaster gun than his own specially designed cartridge! Wilkinson insisted on using his own proprietary cartridge as well and did not acquiesce to the use of the standard service load during testing. The result of testing the three systems at 500 yards, aimed at a 6’ foot target resulted in the Lancaster rifling system placing all shots in a 4’ group, while the Enfield rifling could only keep 75% of the shots on target at that distance. The Wilkinson system fared far worse, failing to reliably keep shots on the 6’ target at 200 yards! The results of the testing were so promising that an additional 20 oval bore P1853s were ordered from Lancaster for further evaluation by the Committee on Small Arms. In addition, it was decided to issue the available 3-groove P1853s very sparingly, in the event that Lancaster’s system was eventually adopted over the Enfield 3-groove bore. To further indicate that the decision was not yet set in stone, it was ordered that all P1853s in the production pipeline (some 20,000 contract arms) be made smoothbore, pending the final decision regarding the rifling pattern. The additional testing in August of 1853, shooting at distances of up to 800 yards, again showed the superior accuracy of the Lancaster design. However, two issues had raised concerns among the nay-sayers who supported the Enfield pattern rifling. The first was that the increasing spiral of the bore was complicated and difficult to produce, which would make it harder for the various arms contractors (as well as R.S.A.F.) to manufacture the Lancaster patent barrels. The second concern was that the relief at the breech, being slightly larger than the muzzle, could allow a loaded bullet to move forward when the arm was in service, leaving an air gap between the bullet and the powder charge. It was feared that this gap might create an unsafe situation resulting in increased pressures and a burst breech when the gun was fired. Lancaster subsequently performed tests with bullets that were not fully seated, which proved that this fear was unwarranted. However unfounded, the concern would affect further testing of the Lancaster system and in some ways conspired to help it fail.

In late August, five trial P1853 Enfields were set up at Enfield with Enfield made, Lancaster patent barrels. The barrels had a minor axis of .577” and a major axis of .587” and has the standard 1:78” rifling pitch. The barrels did not have the breech relief of the Lancaster made barrels, nor did they use progressive twist rifling, so the rate of twist remained constant through the length of the bore. These five rifles were tested against Lancaster’s submissions and were found to be sorely lacking, with the Lancaster produced rifles placing 99 of 100 rounds in a reasonable group on a 300-yard target, and the Enfield produced oval bores missing the target entirely 68 times at the same distance!  Amazingly, this additional confirmation only resulted in additional testing, with the Board of Ordnance’s decision-making process moving with all the speed of a receding polar ice cap! This fourth series of tests of the Lancaster system in 1853 again proved that the oval bore rifling was superior not only to the conventional 3-groove rifling employed at Enfield, but also to the Enfield made version of the oval bore. In these tests, the Enfield “oval bore” showed a tendency to “strip” after a significant amount of firing, what a modern shooter would refer to as the bore being “shot out”, with the rifling being worn beyond the point of serving its purpose. While the Lancaster made rifles did not show this tendency, it was implied that since this defect existed in the Enfield made arms, that “production quality” oval bore rifles, not produced with the same precision as Lancaster’s trial rifles, would suffer the same fate. Thus, a fifth set of tests were performed in November 1853, this time eliminating the Enfield made oval bores and once again putting the Lancaster oval bore in a head-to-head competition with the 3-groove Enfield. This last series of tests for 1853 showed that even Lancaster’s well-made guns, after a significant amount of firing, began to “strip” as the Enfield made versions had. The report noted that no visible (or even measurable) deterioration was noted, but that after repeated firing the accuracy of the guns gradually eroded. It appears that the Small Arms Committee was performing the tests with the same five trials rifles that had been supplied that summer, and it was likely at this point that thousands of rounds had been fired through the guns. Amazingly, this report resulted in a new series of tests in early 1854. This sixth test required more than 1,000 rounds to be fired from a single Lancaster oval bore rifle musket versus a standard Enfield P1853. As had been discovered in the final testing at the end of the previous year, the Lancaster system began to “strip” and the accuracy degraded over time. The reason for the failure could not be discovered, and as the oval bore system was so much more accurate than the 3-groove system when the bore was new, the supporters of Lancaster’s design lobbied for another test (the seventh) in February of 1854, with the results being the same. At this point, it appears that serious pursuit of the Lancaster rifling system by the Small Arms Committee was abandoned. However, only a year later, Lancaster’s design was adopted for limited production and issue to the Royal Engineer Corps, as the Pattern 1855 Royal Engineer’s Carbine, or more commonly as the Royal Sappers & Miners Carbine, with Lancaster’s Oval Bore. So, as we can see the oval bore concept was far from dead and still had several supporters with the small arms and ordnance communities. The Pattern 1855 Royal Engineer’s Carbine looks very much like the Pattern 1856 Enfield “Short Rifle” at first glance. The brass mounted rifle had a 31.5” round barrel, secured by two clamping barrel bands and was nominally 48” in overall length. A bayonet lug to accept a saber bayonet was mounted to the barrel, near the muzzle. Like most variants of the shorter “Enfield” pattern long arms, the lower swivel was mounted in the toe of the stock and the upper swivel was attached to the upper band. While the 1.5” difference in length between the barrels of the Royal Engineers “Sappers & Miners” carbine and the Pattern 1856 short rifle is not immediately noticeable, the mounting of the rear sight “backwards” from the conventional direction on the Lancaster guns is a quick identifying feature. Due to Lancaster’s control of the patent, he managed to be the only contractor to produce the military contract Royal Engineer’s Carbines from their adoption through November of 1858. After that time, contracts were let to the various Birmingham and London makers who could produce the gun. However, the guns were never acquired in large numbers as their issue was to a very specific and small branch of the British military. Despite the limited production for British military use, the outstanding accuracy of the Lancaster design found favor with the British “Volunteer” movement.

Offered here is a GOOD condition example of a scarce Pattern 1855 Royal Engineer’s Carbine. The gun is clearly marked on the lock, in two engraved lines: C. LANCASTER’S / PATENT. The barrel is further engraved: 151 NEW BOND ST LONDON. The barrel measures 31.75”; the top of the barrel is stamped with the usual London commercial view, proof and definitive proof marks, as well as the gauge mark 25, indicating a nominally .577 bore. The “carbine” has the correct pattern leaf rear sight that is mounted in reverse with the 1000-yard graduations on the bottom of the leaf, so they are seen by the shooter when it is lifted. The original front sight, an improved version of the standard military “block and blade” sight, is present near the muzzle. The saber bayonet lug is of the correct Pattern 1856 “Type I” pattern with a .75” key forward of the main lug. The exposed iron surface shows light pitting, but it is under a deep brown attractive patina. The lock has a slightly mottled plum brown and gray patina, with double boarder line engraving that remains clear and sharp, as does the engraved Lancaster information. The lock is mechanically excellent and functions perfectly. As noted, the original rear sight and front sight are present, as is the original bayonet lug, the original full-length ramrod and both sling swivels. Even the original screw protecting “doughnuts” are present at the ends of the tension screws for the two Palmer pattern clamping bands. All of the brass furniture from the buttplate to the nose cap has a smooth patina that matches the balance of the gun well. The stock is in about VERY GOOD condition and is made from an attractive and nicely figured piece of walnut. The stock is solid, full-length, and complete and free of any repairs, breaks, with a few hair-line cracks near the butt-plate. The stock retains very good line and edges and does not appear to have been sanded. Overall, this is a very attractive, 100% complete and correct example of a commercial or “Volunteer” version of the Pattern 1855 Royal Engineer’s CarbineShipping & Insurance included. $1700.00

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F430. LOUISIANA PURCHASED 1853 ENFIELD RIFLE – CONFEDERATE ARSENAL MODIFIED COMBAT SHOTGUN: During the Civil War, the South recovered weapons and other military items off the battlefield to be refurbished and reused. For those weapons being restored to original condition, the Clear & Repair system in Richmond was utilized. However, there was another earlier system established to convert some guns for a purpose other than originally designed. Many full-sized guns were cut-down and smoothed bored making them into shotguns to use buck & ball ammunition. Buck-and-ball was a common load use by Confederates and consisted of a large caliber lead musket ball combined with three to six buckshot pellets. This was not a post-war conversion, but done early in the war. This Enfield is one of the rare ones purchased by the State of Louisiana. These did not have serial numbers, but were stamped with a six-point star with a circle L in the center, and the mark is found on the underside of the stock to the rear of the trigger guard. The stock on this gun is cut back to the first band. The barrel is reduced to 30 1/4 inches and smooth bored, and the rear site was removed and a notch was cut for a front site. There is no rear swivel, and the lock is marked with a Crown & 1861 over TOWER and it properly function. A Louisiana surcharged Enfield is rare in any condition, and at the December show in Franklin, I saw a full-size example priced for $14,000. This is available at a much more reasonable priced. Shipping & Insurance is included.  $2300.00

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F443. ADAMS REVOLVER - MODEL 1851 DOUBLE ACTION REVOLVER: The Adams Model 1851 double action percussion revolver was one of the most successful English revolver designs of the mid-19th century and many were imported for use during the American Civil War. Robert Adams received his patent for a solid frame, one-piece revolver design in 1851. The patent covered his design for a very strong revolver, where the frame and barrel were produced from a single forging. Adams additionally patented a self cocking lock work, which today would be referred to as “double action only.” This mechanism cocked the hammer, rotated the cylinder, and released the hammer, all as the result of a single pull of the trigger. In 1854 Adams also patented refinements to his original frame design by adding a sliding frame mounted safety on the right side of the frame. Those revolvers produced by Adams himself are usually suffixed with an “R” or with no letter at all. Some were purchased directly by the US government, and Schuyler, Hartley & Graham purchased a quantity for private sale to officers and State units. Some of the Schuyler, Hartley & Graham guns (about 300) are reported to have been purchased by the state of Alabama prior to the start of the war. Virginia and Georgia are reported to have made pre-war purchases as well. Though the Confederate government did not have a contract for Adams revolvers, Southern units were known to have them. Several Confederate identified and presented Adams revolvers exist in public and private collections, including in the Museum of the Confederacy, and two Adams revolvers attributed to the Confederate naval aboard the CSS Shenandoah. Most Confederate war-time purchases are believed to have fallen within the 33,000 to 42,000 serial number range, although it is quite likely that guns produced prior to that range, and many of those previously imported to America, were used as well. In some cases, the guns were “new old stock”, sitting on the shelves of London and Birmingham firearms retailers, that were sold to Confederate speculators. Civil War regiments that are known to have carried or been issued Adams’ patent revolvers include the 8th PA and 2nd MI cavalry on the US side and the 1st, 5th & 18th VA and 5th GA cavalry on the CS side.

This Adams Model 1851 Percussion Revolver is in about VERY FINE. It is the classic 54-Bore handgun with a 5-shot cylinder and a 6 1/8” long octagon barrel. The obverse frame is engraved in a single line below the cylinder: ADAMS’ PATENT . No. 30352. The top barrel flat is unmarked, and the cylinder bears the matching serial number engraved: No. 30352. This serial number is close to the known range of Confederate guns (33,000 to 42,000)! The cylinder has the Birmingham commercial proof marks alternating between the chambers, a {CROWN} Cross Arrows / V and the barrel has a Birmingham commercial view marks, {CROWN} Cross Arrows / V on the upper left angled flat. The revolver is unadorned and shows no engraved embellishments other than some simple boarder line engraving around the edges of the frame. The octagonal barrel is rifled with three wide grooves, and the rates about VERY GOOD++ and is bright. The entire gun retains much original blued finish. The cylinder has a dark, mottled smoky blue-black patina, typical of an Adams cylinder that has seen some real use and service, and retains all original cones (nipples). The hammer shows age discoloration, and the trigger has a silvery-gray patina. The iron trigger guard has an untouched mottled gray-brown patina. The butt cap has a dark, even, plum brown patina with moderate oxidation and some pinpricking. The action of the revolver properly functions, and the gun times, indexes and locks up perfectly. The loading lever is complete is functions. The revolver retains the original front sight base on the top of the barrel. The original notch rear sight on the rear of the frame is undamaged. The checkered one-piece walnut grip is in about VERY GOOD+ to NEAR FINE condition. The grip is solid with no cracks or repairs and is in genuinely nice shape. Overall, the condition of the revolver is indicative of a gun that saw some use and was fired to some degree during its lifetime but was well maintained. Overall, this is a nice example. Shipping and insurance included. $2500.00

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F446. COLT MODEL 1851 NAVY REVOLVER – 1861This is a Colt Model 1851 Navy Revolver; Serial Number 109757; (Manufacture Year – 1861. The serial number matches on all parts to include the cylinder, the guard, backstrap, lower received, barrel and loading lever, but not the wedge, which is 722. This number is so close that it might be a factory error. The frame looks to be factory plated indicating it may have been acquired by the Navy; this was done to protect it from salt water corrosion. The grips and all screws are original, and the gun is tight. The action properly functions and it hold both half and full cock, and cycles correctly. The Colt maker mark on the top of the barrel. The cylinder scene is all but gone and there is some gun power pitting, and the rifling is strong. Shipping & Insurance is included. $1600.00

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“A” & ”Q”

F474. CONFEDERATE “Cleaned & Repaired” - U.S. MODEL 1816 HARPERS FERRY CONVERSION MUSKET: This model 1816 Harpers Ferry conversion musket has the letters “A” & ”Q” stamped on the underside forward the trigger tang, which means this gun went through the Confederate “C&R” Clean & Repair process at least two times at a different Richmond Arsenal. The stock is original and never sanded and you can still see several of the original cartouche marks. The lock properly functions and holds in both half & full cock positions and is marked “HARPERS FERRY 1837” with the US Eagle, and the nipples is original though mushed flat. The barrel appears to have been replaced during the “C&R” Clean & Repair process because the tang date is “1832” and the other barrel marks are barely. Also, there are several vice-clamp marks common to C&R guns. There appears to be some gold paint on the barrel near the lock indicating the gun may have been in a GAR hall as a war trophy. On the stock opposite the lock is stamped “C. 31” which most likely is “C Company, 31st Regiment” and since the gun originated at Harpers Ferry, and Cleaned & Repaired in Richmond, VA, it is reasonable to surmise the gun went to a Virginia unit. This is an early Confederate “C&R” Clean & Repair, which no doubt saw the Elephant! Shipping & Insurance included. $1900.00

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F481. AUSTRIAN M1854 TYPE I LORENZ RIFLE MUSKET:  This is example of the desirable Austrian Model 1854 Lorenz Rifle Musket in very nice condition. The Lorenz was the third most used rifle musket during the American Civil War, with US purchases in excess of 250,000 and documented CS purchases of at least 100,000.  In general, the US purchased most of their Lorenz rifles in 1861 and 1862, initially receiving the oldest guns in the Austrian military inventory. Many of these guns underwent modification or repairs in Belgium on their way to the US. Often, they were also supposed to be re-bored to the standard US .58 caliber during the refurbishment process. Most of the CS Lorenz purchases were made from early-1862 through the end of the war and were .54 caliber. The importance of the .54 caliber Austrian M1854 Lorenz to the Confederacy might best be illustrated by the huge number of Austrian Rifle Cartridges that were imported by the Confederacy from both Austria and England.

This Lorenz is complete and original to include the ramrod.  The gun is in GOOD + original condition and is very attractive. This Lorenz variant is an Austrian K.K. Army surplus gun that has a cheek rest on the reverse of the stock, the fixed-range block rear sight. The block sight and nominal .54 caliber bore has been considered the quintessential “Confederate” variant according to the old-time collectors and Civil War Arms researchers.  The gun has a dark bore with no original groves, it is either shot out or bored out for Buck & Ball. The lock is very clearly marked with the {Austrian Eagle} to the rear of the hammer and 860 to the front, indicating that it was produced in 1860. The initials “J W” are faintly carved in the stock.  Shipping & Insurance included. $1600.00

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CLICK THE ABOVE ICON TO READ THE COMPLETE HISTORY

F491. 2ND ILLINOIS CAVALRY ISSUED & IDENTIFIED - COLT MODEL 1861 NAVY REVOLVER: This is a VERY GOOD+ to LOW FINE condition example of the scarce Colt New Model Navy Percussion Revolver, better known to collectors as the Model 1861 Navy Revolver. It has a documenting that it was shipped to the United State Navy Department; Commanding Officer; U.S. Navy Yard Boston, Massachusetts on December 20, 1861 in a lot of 200 guns. It would later be sold or transferred to the Army, and issued on 01 July, 1864 to Private Henry C. Stover; Company “C” 2nd Illinois Cavalry Regiment as documented in the Springfield records and confirmed by the 2nd Illinois Cavalry Regiment files at the National Archives.

The Model 1861 Navy was the pinnacle of Colt’s percussion revolver production and blended some of the best features of both the popular Old Model Navy (aka Model 1851) and New Model Army (aka Model 1860) revolvers into one pistol. The gun was .36 caliber, as implied by the name “Navy”, with a six chambered cylinder and had a 7 ½” round barrel. The loading lever was of the Model 1860 Army “creeping style” and for all practical purposes the front half of the revolver was a scaled down version of Model 1860 Army in .36 caliber. The rear portion of the revolver was pure “Navy” with the classic Model 1851 grip frame and grip angle, which would live for generations as the pattern for the grip design of the classic Colt Model 1873 Single Action Army.

The Model 1861 Navy was more streamlined than the earlier Model 1851 variant and the new loading lever was a significant improvement over the older toggle action design. While the revolvers were not purchased in huge numbers by the US government during the American Civil War, they did serve in reasonably large numbers, proportional to their production. Only 38,843 of the pistols were produced during its production run from 1861 to 1873, with less than 28,000 being manufactured before the end of 1865. Most sources place US government purchases at about 2,000 guns, but based upon recorded serial number data, more were purchased on the open market, as well as by the various states and by individual soldiers.

According to the Springfield Research Service serial number record books, several Model 1861 Navy revolvers were reported in the hands of troopers from Companies F & L, 13th Illinois Cavalry during 1864. These guns are scattered in the serial number ranges of 2496 – 4324, 7636 – 12482 and 16001 – 16236. Model 1861 Navy revolvers also show up in the records of the 2nd Illinois Cavalry (Companies C & D, scattered from 4255 – 7709), the 9th Illinois Cavalry (Company D) and the 10th Illinois Cavalry (Company B). Colt Model 1861 Navy revolvers are also listed among the small arms issued to Company L of the 2nd KY Cavalry (US), and Company E of the 11th Ohio Cavalry. The members of Company M, 1st Arkansas Cavalry privately purchased a handful of the pistols as well. This wide range of serial numbers and issue of the pistols clearly indicates that many more of the revolvers were purchased by the states and saw use during the war than the 2,000 Ordnance Department purchased and inspected revolvers.

The fact that a minimum of three Illinois Volunteer cavalry regiments were at least partially armed with the revolvers suggests that Illinois may have made a significant purchase of the revolvers directly from Colt or other sources such as the U. S. Navy or Ordnance Department. At least one delivery of 50 “New Model” Navy revolvers to the state of Illinois is contained within surviving Colt documents. 

This Colt New Model 1861 Navy Revolver is in VERY GOOD+ to LOW FINE condition and is serial number 4403, placing its production in 1861 with all serial numbers matching to include the wedge. The grips are tight to the backstrap and no doubt are original and will have an ink numbered with the last three digits of the serial number inside the backstrap cut out.

The lower left front of the frame reads COLT’S / PATENT, and the side of the cylinder is marked COLT’S PATENT No 4403. The naval battle scene roll engraved on the cylinder is worn, but visible, and the top of the 7 1/2” round barrel is marked with the standard one-line New York address: 

— ADDRESS COL. SAML COLT NEW – YORK U. S. AMERICA —

The gun does not bear any government inspector marks; however, the lack of these markings does not in any way mean that the gun did not see Civil War service.  As noted, the Colt letter documents its shipment the U. S. Navy, and the Springfield records and files at the National Archives documents its use by Private Henry C. Stover; Company “C” 2nd Illinois Cavalry Regiment as discussed above.

The gun is tight and essentially untouched except for the replaced screw above the wedge, and is basically a plum-brown gun. It shows scattered freckles of oxidation and darkening here and there and some freckled areas of minor surface roughness, with some pinpricking and light pitting around the muzzle and of course on the face and rear of the cylinder. The frame has more of a mottled gray patina, which is lighter than the plum brown tone that is prevalent on the barrel and cylinder.

The cylinder retains about 65%+ of the Ormsby roll engraved Republic of Texas vs. the Mexican Navy battle scene. The cylinder retains all six original cones (nipples), and most of the safety pins are present on the rear of the cylinder.

The bore of the pistol rates about VERY FINE++. It is partly bright, with sharp rifling. The pistol is in FINE mechanical condition and functions as it should. The revolver times, indexes and locks up correctly and the action retains a nice, crisp feel to it. The brass frame has an attractive golden color. There is no silver-plated finish on the grip frame and was probably never plated. The gun was likely produced with the “military finish” which included a lower level of polish to the metal resulting in a duller blue, skipped the silver-plating process for the brass parts and utilized oil finished, rather than varnished wood grips. The one-piece walnut grip is in about VERY GOOD++ condition and is free of any breaks, cracks, or repairs. The edges remain crisp but the lower right leading edge does show a small missing chip.

Overall, this is a relatively crisp, well-marked and mechanically fine example of one of the less commonly encountered Colt revolvers from the American Civil War period. With less than 39,000 produced, and less than 28,000 of them produced before the end of 1865, these guns can be hard to find compared to the approximately 200,000 Colt Model 1860 Army revolvers and approximately 215,000 Colt Model 1851 Navy revolvers produced. The 1861 Navy production only equaled about 19% of Colt 1860 Army production and 17% of Colt 1851 Navy production. As such, they are about five times rarer than the more commonly encountered Colts of the era. By that logic, the guns should be five times as valuable as their more numerous brethren! This is a very nice example that presents well and has a nice, honest, and attractive appearance.  The gun will be a wonderful addition to your collection of Civil War era secondary martial revolvers and is a gun you will really enjoy displaying with your collection. 

Henry C. Stover was from Bath Illinois and enlisted on 31 July 1861 as a Private, and on 12 August 1861 mustered into Company “C” Illinois 2nd Cavalry. His Muster Cards show he was present with Company “C” Illinois 2nd Cavalry July 1861 to April 1863; Detailed as an Orderly for Colonel Keppner, Memphis Tennessee May 1863 to Dec 1863; Detached service Fort Pickering – 3rd Regiment, United States Colored Heavy Artillery (1st Tennessee Heavy Artillery) Nov to Dec 1863; mustered out 1 Jan 1864 and discharged in order to reenlistment to continue service as Orderly for Colonel Keppner, Memphis Tennessee until April 1864. In May 1864, Stover returns to Company “C” Illinois 2nd Cavalry to June 1865; after which he is listed as a deserter in August 1865; but later Mustered Out in November, 1865 while in San Antonio Texas. A review on his pension file shows he sustained two line-of-duty injuries: 1 April, 1862 he was kicked in the head by his horse, which led to the loss of hearing and his left eye, and on 2 November 1862, at Bolivar Tennessee, his great (large) toe was shot off in battle while guarding a forage train. Included is the original Colt letter, a copy of the Springfield records, and a history binder complete with copies of the soldier’s muster sheets and pension file. Shipping & Insurance included. $4900.00

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ENFIELD RIFLE/CARBINE TOMPION: The Enfield rifle & carbine cork Tompion was designed to plug the barrel to prevent water from entering when the weapon was not in use. It is only 1 1/2 inches long with a cork body, a brass tip, and a brass crown. One came with each issued Enfield rifle or carbine, but being so small it was easily lost. I have seen several battle-field examples dug from both Union and Confederate camps, but not so many non-dug examples until recently. I was able to acquire three, which are all complete with no issues. Each is for sale at the same price. Shipping included. $75.00

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